In a flock of birds one individual first gives a call when a predator appears. this call is quickly repeated by all members of the flock and soon the entire flock is calling at this predator. this activity seems to deter the predator. when this barrage of calls is given the predator always flies away. this is a possible example of
i'm pretty sure that the tubes are known as "xylem"
when rutherford performed his metal foil experiment, he was surprised that most of the alpha particles passed straight through the foil.
hope this : )
i believe the answer you are looking for is a) faster and more efficient development of new hybrids. this is not a step. it is the outcome of the steps.