answer : option b) a male weight lifter in his 20's.
explanation : osteoporosis is a disease caused due to thinning and weakening of the bones that may strike many women after menopause, as well as some older men. so, looking at the giving options it seems that the male who does weight lifting during his 20's will be at least risk of getting osteoporosis as compared to the other examples given.
clays are derived from the minerals in rocks by chemical decomposition. they are the end product of weathering . there are different families of clays depending on chemical composition and crystal structure and there are various clays in each family. soils are mixtures of rocks, minerals, and clays. like clays, soils are grouped but by texture and mineral composition rather than by chemistory and crystallography. given enough time a soil may break down to one or more clays but a pure clay will never break down to soil.
this was a very loose description of the differences. if you need more specific information you should be able to find it using one of the internet search engines.