kinases refer to the group of enzymes which catalyze the transfer of phosphate group to their substrate. the phosphate group is usually transferred from high energy phosphate donating molecules such as atp and gtp.
addition of phosphate group may activate some proteins or enzymes while it may deactivate other enzymes.
for example, cdk-activating kinase adds phosphate groups to the cdk in order to activate them.
in bryophyes(mosses and liverworts, the dominant generation is haploid. so that the gametophyte comprises what we think of as the main plant. the opposite is true for tracheophytes(vascular plants), in which the diploid generation is dominmant and the sporophyte compreses the main plant.