δh > 0; δs > 0; δg = 0
not spontaneous when t < 100 °c;
equilibrium when t = 100 °c
spontaneous when t > 100 °c
the process is
h₂o(ℓ) ⇌ h₂o(g)
δh > 0 (positive), because we must add heat to boil water
δs > 0 (positive), because changing from a liquid to a gas increases the disorder
δg = 0, because the liquid-vapour equilibrium process is at equilibrium at 100 °c
δg = δh – tδs
both δh and δs are positive.
if t = 100 °c, δg =0. δh = tδs, and the system is at equilibrium.
if t < 100 °c, the δh term will predominate, because t has decreased below the equilibrium value.
δg > 0. the process is not spontaneous below 100 °c.
if t > 100 °c, the tδs term will predominate, because t has increased above the equilibrium value.
δg < 0. the process is spontaneous above 100 °c.
you can obtain the atomic mass of any chemical element by using the periodic table.
the molar mass is usually listed underneath the chemical symbol. the units associated with molar mass is grams per mole .
8 electrons are needed