Use the partition function for a harmonic oscillator, q = 1 / (1- e^-hv/kbt) , to determine the ratio of populations in the lowest and first excited energy levels, p0/p1 , for the indicated systems at two temperatures, 50 k and 298 k :
(a) the 1700 cm−1 stretching vibrational mode for the carbonyl (c=o) group in the peptide bond of a polypeptide.
(b) the 150 cm−1 torsional vibrational mode for the c=c bond in trans-2-butadiene.
boiling point is the temperature at which the vapor pressure of the liquid equals atmospheric pressure. the vapor pressure of solvent molecules is decreased when a solute is added, so a higher temperature is required to increase the number of solvent molecules in the gas phase above the liquid.
at the freezing point, the vapor pressures of the solid and liquid are equal; a lower temperature is needed to reduce the number of solvent particles above the liquid.
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answer: it contains 1.0 mole of hcl per 1 liter of solution.
molarity : it is defined as the number of moles of solute present in one liter of solution.
formula used :
n = moles of solute
= volume of solution in liter
thus 1.0 m solution means the solution contain 1 mole in 1 liter of solution.