the eighteenth amendment to the united states constitution, along with the volstead act that defined the concept of intoxicating liquor in the united states, established the country's dry law.
section 1. after one year from the ratification of this article the manufacture, sale, or transportation of intoxicating liquors within, the importation thereof into, or the exportation thereof from the united states and all territory subject to the jurisdiction thereof for beverage purposes is hereby prohibited.
section 2. the congress and the several states shall have concurrent power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.
section 3. this article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified as an amendment to the constitution by the legislatures of the several states, as provided in the constitution, within seven years from the date of the submission hereof to the states by the congress.
a federal bank must pay taxes to the state in which it is located.
galileo had to recant his theories before the papal court
there are many challenges to growing a civil society and democratic practices in the middle east.in countries where it is relatively easier to establish pro-democracy organizations, these are still severely restricted by law. in jordan, for instance, all ngo board members must be cleared by internal security. more problematically, the ministry of social development whose primary purpose isto monitor the activities of civil society can replace ngo boards with temporary boards of its own choosing and has the power to dissolve ngos altogether. fear leads to self-censorship and creation of self-enforcing norms that encourage accommodation with the state and discourage confrontation. this, in effect, is repression by other means. the result is that civil society, once considered a key driver of middle east democratization, becomes an arena of state hegemony rather than an “instrument of collective empowerment.”in addition to these set of problems, any western strategy that includes a funding component, will inevitably face a number of obstacles. many arab ngos instituted a policy of not accepting any american government funding in 2004 due to the unpopularity of the bush administration’s policies. some of them revised policy and began accepting funding in 2009 due to the perceived popularity of president barack obama.