charlemagne's crowning made the byzantine emperor redundant, and relations between the east and the west deteriorated until a formal split occurred in 1054. the eastern church became the greek orthodox church by severing all ties with rome and the roman catholic church — from the pope to the holy roman emperor on down.
causes of the idustrial revolution:increase in population: since the 18th century plague epidemics were disappearing and the development of agriculture allowed the growth of food production and then there was a decrease in catastrophic mortality (hunger, wars, epidemics).european mortality, like infant mortality, was reduced.the birth rate was slowly decreasing, although it remained high, as a result the vegetative growth increased a lot. the increase in the population was greater in the cities. there were also migrations, especially to america.
effects:large capital accumulated that gave rise to companies and corporations. the communication routes and means of transport were designed, developed and perfected, making possible the exchange between nations.chambers of commerce, insurance companies, banks, etc. were created. the system of income on credit is developed. advertising methods and commercial competences emerged.
i already answered this quesiton but here it goes again:
extensive and detailed information on the holocaust was known to the allies since 1942 to the detailed testimonies and other accounts of jewish escapees from the camps and the warsaw ghetto (grojanowski report). the polish government in exile, based in london immediately had it translated into english and added to another report on the same subject. the soviet high command was also aware of the killing and sent its own reports to the allies. in december of 1942 the joint declaration of by members of the united nations was made public and it condemned the massacres publicly.
however, the allies also decided not to publicize it too much for several reasons, including that the extent of the killings were so horrendous and unique in their scope and magnitude that they feared public opinion would not believe it and start considering such reports as yellow journalism. they also feared that focusing so exclusively on the issue of the extermination of jews would alienate segments of the population who were against the axis powers, yet profoundly anti-semitic.