the 15th amendment deals with b. voting
"right of citizens of the united states to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the united states or by any state on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude."
causes of the idustrial revolution:increase in population: since the 18th century plague epidemics were disappearing and the development of agriculture allowed the growth of food production and then there was a decrease in catastrophic mortality (hunger, wars, epidemics).european mortality, like infant mortality, was reduced.the birth rate was slowly decreasing, although it remained high, as a result the vegetative growth increased a lot. the increase in the population was greater in the cities. there were also migrations, especially to america.
effects:large capital accumulated that gave rise to companies and corporations. the communication routes and means of transport were designed, developed and perfected, making possible the exchange between nations.chambers of commerce, insurance companies, banks, etc. were created. the system of income on credit is developed. advertising methods and commercial competences emerged.