a covalent bond is formed when atoms share one or more electrons.
a covalent bond is formed when one or more electron of atoms get shared. for the stability, atoms fill up their outer electron shell. these electron pairs are known as a shared pair. the chemical repulsion and attraction between the atoms are called a covalent bond. there are four types of covalent bonds which are,
recall the force applied to a spring and its extension/compression:
f = kδx
δx is the change in the spring's length (measured from its original length).
x = 0.7 m
x₀ = 0.4 m
δx = x-x₀ = 0.7 m - 0.4 m = 0.3 m
f = 23 n
substitute and solve for k:
23 = k×0.3k = 7.67 n/m