Callum is a 79-year-old widower. his wife died nearly 2 years ago and he still seems to be in a stage of unrelenting mourning, talking almost exclusively about his wife and their life together and declining to join his family on outings he once enjoyed. callum's behavior seems to be indicative of
the republic of south africa is a country located at the southern tip of the african continent.
it is unfunded mandates.
more broadly, unfunded mandates are government's orders or mandates that requires state and local government to perform activities for which it has no funds, and the government does not reimburse them.
with an unfunded mandate, the government put regulations or new conditions that diminish the state's ability to pay for an existing mandate, for example, it may cut funds designated for a specific program or it may change the requirements for receiving funds.
for example, when the government increases the minimum wage of a nation, it's creating an unfunded mandate, as the companies now have to abide by the law by paying higher salaries without any governmental or funding. this also happens when the government order public transit agencies to upgrade security measures, training programs, and background checks, without any financial .